Full Reference Section

  1. ^ Tonya Maxwell. Duke plans to retire Asheville coal plant, replace with natural gas.Citizen-Times. May 19, 2015. Accessed August 2017. http://www.citizen-times.com/story/news/local/2015/05/19/duke-plans-retire-asheville-coal-plant/27571083/
  2. ^ Duke Energy News Center. Duke Energy’s fleet modernization allows two coal plants to retire early.February 1, 2013. Accessed August 2017. https://news.duke-energy.com/releases/duke-energy-s-fleet-modernization-allows-two-coal-plants-to-retire-early.
  3. ^ Reuters,Solar Power is Finding its Day in the Sun, July 5, 2016, Accessed August 2017, http://fortune.com/2016/07/05/solar-power-is-finding-its-day-in-the-sun/.
  4. ^ John Murawski, NC Solar Workforce Growing Annually, The News & Observer, February 7, 2017, Accessed August 2017, http://www.newsobserver.com/news/business/article131316314.html.
  5. ^ John Downey,N.C. Tops the U.S. for utility-scale solar built in Q1. Charlotte Business Journal. May 30, 2017. Accessed August 2017. https://www.bizjournals.com/charlotte/news/2017/05/30/n-c-tops-the-u-s-for-utility-scale-solar-built-in.html.
  6. ^ U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.Progress Cleaning the Air and Improving People’s Health.Accessed August 4, 2017. https://www.epa.gov/clean-air-act-overview/progress-cleaning-air-and-improving-peoples-health.
  7. ^ Mike Carroll, North Carolina Cooperative Extension, personal communication, June 28, 2017.
  8. ^ Mike Carroll, North Carolina Cooperative Extension, personal communication, June 28, 2017.
  9. ^ Brent Niemann, Strata Solar, personal communication, June 20, 2017.
  10. ^ Ted Feitshans, Molly Brewer.Landowner Solar Leasing: Contract Terms Explained.NC State Extension Publications. May 2016. Accessed March 2017. https://content.ces.ncsu.edu/landowner-solar-leasing-contract-terms-explained
  11. ^ North Carolina Sustainable Energy Association.Land Use Analysis of NC Solar Installations.February 2017. Accessed March 2017.https://c.ymcdn.com/sites/energync.site-ym.com/resource/resmgr/Solar_and_Land_Use_Analysis_.pdf.
  12. ^ Joseph Hudyncia, North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, personal communication, July 8, 2017.
  13. ^ North Carolina Sustainable Energy Association.North Carolina Installed Solar Systems.March 2017. Accessed March 2017.http://energyncmaps.org/gis/solar/index.html
  14. ^ North Carolina Sustainable Energy Association.Land Use Analysis of NC Solar Installations.February 2017. Accessed March 2017. https://c.ymcdn.com/sites/energync.site-ym.com/resource/resmgr/Solar_and_Land_Use_Analysis_.pdf
  15. ^ North Carolina Sustainable Energy Association.North Carolina Solar and Agriculture. April 2017. Accessed June 2017. https://energync.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/NCSEA_NC_Solar_and_Agriculture_4_19.pdf
  16. ^ 2.3 GW produce about 2.3% of NC electricity (see NCSEA’s North Carolina Solar and Agriculture, April 2017) and occupies 0.19% of cropland. Multiplying 0.19% by 100%/2.3% = 8.26%. Multiplying 2.3 GW by 100%/2.3% = 100 GW and at 5.78 acres per MW this is 578,000 acres of solar projects to meet provide 100% of current NC electricity annual usage. 578,000 / 34,444,160 acres in NC is 1.7%
  17. ^ Pieter Gagnon, Robert Margolis, Jennifer Melius, Caleb Phillips, and Ryan Elmore.Rooftop Solar Photovoltaic Technical Potential in the United States: A Detailed Assessment.National Renewable Energy Laboratory. January 2016. Accessed May 2017. http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy16osti/65298.pdf
  18. ^ Mark Z. Jacobson. Repowering 100% of all Energy in the United States and the World for 100% of the People at Low CostWithClean and Renewable Wind, Water, and Sunlight (WWS).Stanford University. November 2016. Accessed March 2017. http://web.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/Articles/I/16-10-31-SummaryRoadmaps.pdf
  19. ^ North Carolina Sustainable Energy Association.North Carolina Solar and Agriculture. April 2017. Accessed June 2017. https://energync.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/NCSEA_NC_Solar_and_Agriculture_4_19.pdf
  20. ^ MIT Energy Initiative.The Future of Solar Energy. May 2015. Accessed May 2017.http://energy.mit.edu/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/MITEI-The-Future-of-Solar-Energy.pdf
  21. ^ Brent Niemann, Strata Solar, personal communication, June 20, 2017.
  22. ^ Brent Niemann, Strata Solar, personal communication, June 20, 2017.
  23. ^ Mike Carroll, North Carolina Cooperative Extension, personal communication, June 28, 2017.
  24. ^ Brent Niemann, Strata Solar, personal communication, June 20, 2017.
  25. ^ Joseph Hudyncia, North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, personal communication, July 8, 2017.
  26. ^ Alona Armstrong, Nicholas Ostle, Jeanette Whitaker. Solar Park MicroclimateAndVegetation Management Effects On Grassland Carbon Cycling.July 2016. Accessed March 2017. http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/11/7/074016/pdf
  27. ^ Joseph Hudyncia, North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, personal communication, July 8, 2017.
  28. ^ Brock Phillips, Sun-Raised Farms, personal communication, June 21, 2017.
  29. ^ North Carolina Department of Environmental QualityStormwaterDesign Manual Ch E-6 Solar Farms.April 2017. Accessed June 2017.https://ncdenr.s3.amazonaws.com/s3fs-public/Energy%20Mineral%20and%20Land%20Resources/Stormwater/BMP%20Manual/E-6_Solar_Farms.pdf
  30. ^ Julie Ventaloro, North Carolina Department of Environmental Quality, personal communication, June 14, 2017.
  31. ^ North Carolina Clean Energy Technology Center. Health and Safety Impacts of Solar Photovoltaics. May 2017. Accessed June 2017. https://nccleantech.ncsu.edu/wp-content/uploads/Health-and-Safety-Impacts-of-Solar-Photovoltaics-2017_white-paper.pdf
  32. ^ Ryan Nielsen, First Solar, personal communication, June 23, 2017.
  33. ^ Chelsea Kellner.Got Sheep? Want a Solar Farm?North Carolina State University College of Agricultural and Life Sciences News. September 2016. Accessed June 2017. https://cals.ncsu.edu/news/got-sheep-want-a-solar-farm/
  34. ^ Brock Phillips, Sun-Raised Farms, personal communication, June 21, 2017.
  35. ^ North Carolina Clean Energy Technology Center.Health and Safety Impacts of Solar Photovoltaics. May 2017. Accessed June 2017. https://nccleantech.ncsu.edu/wp-content/uploads/Health-and-Safety-Impacts-of-Solar-Photovoltaics-2017_white-paper.pdf
  36. ^ NC State Cooperative Extension Service.Extension Gardener Handbook.February 2015. Accessed June 2017.https://content.ces.ncsu.edu/extension-gardener-handbook/1-soils-and-plant-nutrients..
  37. ^ Spectrum Analytics.Soil Aluminum and Soil Test Interpretation.Accessed March 2017. http://www.spectrumanalytic.com/support/library/ff/Soil_Aluminum_and_test_interpretation.htm
  38. ^ Aluminum Design.Aluminum Corrosion Resistance.Accessed March 2017.http://www.aluminiumdesign.net/design-support/aluminium-corrosion-resistance/.Resource explains aluminum's corrosion resistance, including the corrosion resistant benefits of anodized aluminum.
  39. ^ American Galvanizers Association.Hot-Dip Galvanized Steel’s ContributiontoZincLevels in the Soil Environment. 2013. Accessed August 2017. https://www.galvanizeit.org/uploads/publications/Galvanized_Steel_Contribution_Zinc_Soil_Environment.pdf
  40. ^ NC State Cooperative Extension Service.Zinc Discussion. July 2015. Accessed August 2017. https://peanut.ces.ncsu.edu/2015/07/zinc-discussion/.
  41. ^ David H. Hardy, M. Ray Tucker, Catherine Stokes.Understanding the Soil Test Report. North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Agronomic Division. October 2013. Accessed August 2017. http://www.ncagr.gov/agronomi/pdffiles/ustr.pdf.
  42. ^ Press Association.Solar farms to create natural habitats for threatened British species.The Guardian. March 7, 2016. Accessed August 2017. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2016/mar/07/solar-farms-to-create-natural-habitats-for-threatened-british-species.
  43. ^ Jordan Macknick, Brenda Beatty, Graham Hill.Overview of Opportunities for Co-Location of Solar Energy Technologies and Vegetation. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. December 2013. Accessed August 2017. http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy14osti/60240.pdf.
  44. ^ Brenda Beatty, Jordan Macknick, James McCall, Genevieve Braus, David Buckner.Native Vegetation Performance under a Solar PV Array at the National Wind Technology Center.National Renewable Energy Laboratory. May 2017. Accessed August 2017. http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy17osti/66218.pdf.
  45. ^ Hannah Covington.Ramsey energy company finds perfect pairing in putting bees, solar panels together.Star Tribune. April 2017. Accessed June 2017. http://m.startribune.com/ramsey-energy-company-shoots-for-gooey-gold-beneath-its-solar-array/420790913/
  46. ^ Ibid. http://m.startribune.com/ramsey-energy-company-shoots-for-gooey-gold-beneath-its-solar-array/420790913/
  47. ^ Lina Herbertsson, Sandra A. M. Lindstrom, Maj Rundlof, Riccardo Bommarco, Henrik G. Smith.Competition between managed honeybees and wild bumblebees depends on landscape context.Basic and Applied Ecology. November 2016. Accessed August 2017. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1439179116300378.
  48. ^ Lora A. Morandin, Mark L. Winston.Pollinators provide economic incentive to preserve natural land in agroecosystems. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 116(3–4):289–292. September 2006. Accessed June 2017. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167880906000910
  49. ^ Mohammad M. Edalat. Remote Sensing of the Environmental Impacts of Utility-Scale Solar Energy Plants.UNLV University Libraries. August 2017. Accessed March 2019.https://digitalscholarship.unlv.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=4078&context=thesesdissertations
  50. ^ Vasilis Fthenakis, Yuanhao Yu. Analysis of the Potential for a Heat Island Effect in Large Solar Farms.2013 IEEE 39th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC). Accessed March 2019.https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/6745171.
  51. ^ Greg A. Barron-Gafford, Rebecca L. Minor, Nathan A. Allen, Alex D. Cronin, Adria E. Brooks, Mtchell A. Pavao-Zuckerman. The Photovoltaic Heat Island Effect: Larger Solar Power Plants Increase Local Temperatures. Scientific Reports 6, Article Number 35070. October 2016. Accessed March 2019.https://www.nature.com/articles/srep35070.
  52. ^ Vasilis Fthenakis, Yuanhao Yu. Analysis of the Potential for a Heat Island Effect in Large Solar Farms.2013 IEEE 39th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC). Accessed March 2019.https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/6745171.
  53. ^ Graham Binder, Lee Tune.Researchers Discover Solar Heat Island Effect Caused by Large-Scale Solar Power Plants.UMD Right Now. November 4, 2016. Accessed March 2019.https://umdrightnow.umd.edu/news/researchers-discover-solar-heat-island-effect-caused-large-scale-solar-power-plants
  54. ^ Greg A. Barron-Gafford, Rebecca L. Minor, Nathan A. Allen, Alex D. Cronin, Adria E. Brooks, Mtchell A. Pavao-Zuckerman. The Photovoltaic Heat Island Effect: Larger Solar Power Plants Increase Local Temperatures. Scientific Reports 6, Article Number 35070. October 2016. Accessed March 2019.
  55. ^ Vasilis Fthenakis, Yuanhao Yu. Analysis of the Potential for a Heat Island Effect in Large Solar Farms2013 IEEE 39th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC). Accessed March 2019.https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/6745171.
  56. ^ 9 RBI Solar, Decommissioning Plan submitted to Catawba County associated with permitting of a 5MW solar project in June 2016. Accessed April 2017. www.catawbacountync.gov/Planning/Projects/Rezonings/RZ2015-05_DecommissioningPlan.pdf
  57. ^ Birdseye Renewables, Decommissioning Plan submitted to Catawba County associated with permitting of a 5MW solar project in May 2015. Accessed April 2017. http://www.catawbacountync.gov/Planning/Projects/Rezonings/RZ2015-04_DecommissioningPlan.pdf.
  58. ^ Cypress Creek Renewables, Decommissioning Plan submitted to Catawba County associated with permitting of a 5MW solar project in September 2016. Accessed April 2017. http://www.catawbacountync.gov/Planning/Projects/Rezonings/RZ2016-06decommission.pdf.
  59. ^ Vasilis Fthenakis, Zhuoran Zhang, Jun-Ki Choi.Cost Optimization of Decommissioning and RecyclingCdTePV Power Plants.IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference 44. June 2017. Accessed August 2017. http://www.ieee-pvsc.org/ePVSC/core_routines/view_abstract_no.php?show_close_window=yes&abstractno=556.
  60. ^ North Carolina Clean Energy Technology Center.Health and Safety Impacts of Solar Photovoltaics. May 2017. Accessed June 2017. https://nccleantech.ncsu.edu/wp-content/uploads/Health-and-Safety-Impacts-of-Solar-Photovoltaics-2017_white-paper.pdf
  61. ^ North Carolina Sustainable Energy Association and North Carolina Clean Energy Technology Center.Template Solar Energy Development Ordinance for North Carolina. October 2016. Accessed June 2017. https://nccleantech.ncsu.edu/wp-content/uploads/NC-Template-Solar-Ordinance_2016.pdf
  62. ^ North Carolina Clean Energy Technology Center.Working Paper: State Regulation of Solar Decommissioning.February 2016. Accessed June 2017. https://nccleantech.ncsu.edu/wp-content/uploads/Solar-Decommissioning-Policy-Working-Paper.pdf
  63. ^ Ted Feitshans, Molly Brewer.Landowner Solar Leasing: Contract Terms Explained.NC State Extension Publications. May 2016. Accessed March 2017. https://content.ces.ncsu.edu/landowner-solar-leasing-contract-terms-explained
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