Full Reference Section

  1. ^ Wiser, Ryan, Trieu Mai, Dev Millstein, Jordan Macknick, Alberta Carpenter, Stuart Cohen, Wesley Cole, Bethany Frew, and Garvin A. Heath. 2016. On the Path to SunShot: The Environmental and Public Health Benefits of Achieving High Penetrations of Solar Energy in the United States. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Accessed March 2017, www.nrel.gov/docs/fy16osti/65628.pdf
  2. ^ IRENA and IEA-PVPS (2016), “End-of-Life Management: Solar Photovoltaic Panels,” International Renewable Energy Agency and International Energy Agency Photovoltaic Power Systems.
  3. ^ National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Overview of Field Experience – Degradation Rates & Lifetimes . September 14, 2015. Solar Power International Conference. Accessed March 2017, www.nrel.gov/docs/fy15osti/65040.pdf
  4. ^ Miesel et al. SolarCity Photovoltaic Modules with 35 Year Useful Life. June 2016. Accessed March 2017. http://www.solarcity.com/newsroom/reports/solarcity-photovoltaic-module…
  5. ^ David Unger. Are Renewables Stormproof? Hurricane Sandy Tests Solar, Wind. November 2012. Accessed March 2017. http://www.csmonitor.com/Environment/Energy-Voices/2012/1119/Are-renewa… & http://www.csmonitor.com/Environment/Energy-Voices/2012/1119/Are-renewa…
  6. ^ NEXTracker and 365 Pronto, Tracking Your Solar Investment: Best Practices for Solar Tracker O&M . Accessed March 2017. www.nextracker.com/content/uploads/2017/03/NEXTracker_OandM-WhitePaper_…
  7. ^ Christiana Honsberg, Stuart Bowden. Overview of Screen Printed Solar Cells . Accessed January 2017. www.pveducation.org/pvcdrom/manufacturing/screen-printed
  8. ^ Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition. 2015 Solar Scorecard. Accessed August 2016. www.solarscorecard.com/2015/2015-SVTC-Solar-Scorecard.pdf
  9. ^ European Commission. Recast of Reduction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive . September 2016. Accessed August 2016. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/rohs_eee/index_en.htm
  10. ^ Official Journal of the European Union, DIRECTIVE 2011/65/EU OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 8 June 2011 on the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment. June 2011. Accessed May 2017. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32011L0065…
  11. ^ Giancarlo Giacchetta, Mariella Leporini, Barbara Marchetti. Evaluation of the Environmental Benefits of New High Value Process for the Management of the End of Life of Thin Film Photovoltaic Modules. July 2013. Accessed August 2016. www.researchgate.net/publication/257408804_Evaluation_of_the_environmen…
  12. ^ European Commission. Study on Photovoltaic Panels Supplementing The Impact Assessment for a Recast of the Weee Directive. April 2011. Accessed August 2016. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/weee/pdf/Study%20on%20PVs%20Bio%2…
  13. ^ The amount of lead in a typical car battery is 21.4 pounds. Waste 360. Chaz Miller. Lead Acid Batteries. March 2006. Accessed August 2016. http://waste360.com/mag/waste_leadacid_batteries_3
  14. ^ Okkenhaug G. Leaching from CdTe PV module material results from batch, column and availability tests. Norwegian Geotechnical Institute, NGI report No. 20092155-00-6-R; 2010
  15. ^ International Journal of Advanced Applied Physics Research. Renate Zapf-Gottwick1, et al. Leaching Hazardous Substances out of Photovoltaic Modules . January 2015. Accessed January 2016. www.cosmosscholars.com/phms/index.php/ijaapr/article/download/485/298
  16. ^ ibid
  17. ^ Parikhit Sinha, et al. Evaluation of Potential Health and Environmental Impacts from End-Of-Life Disposal of Photovoltaics, Photovoltaics, 2014. Accessed May 2016
  18. ^ Bonnet, D. and P. Meyers. 1998. Cadmium-telluride—Material for thin film solar cells. J. Mater. Res., Vol. 13, No. 10, pp. 2740-2753
  19. ^ V. Fthenakis, K. Zweibel. CdTe PV: Real and Perceived EHS Risks . National Center ofr Photovoltaics and Solar Program Review Meeting, March 24-26, 2003. www.nrel.gov/docs/fy03osti/33561.pdf. Accessed May 2017
  20. ^ International Energy Agency Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme. Life Cycle Inventories and Life Cycle Assessments of Photovoltaic Systems . March 2015. Accessed August 2016. http://iea-pvps.org/index.php?id=315
  21. ^ Data not available on fraction of various generation sources offset by solar generation in NC, but this is believed to be a reasonable rough estimate. The SunShot report entitled The Environmental and Public Health Benefits of Achieving High Penetrations of Solar Energy in the United States analysis contributes significant (% not provided) offsetting of coal-fired generation by solar PV energy in the southeast.
  22. ^ 7 MW * 1.5 GWh/MW * 25 years * 0.93 degradation factor * (0.1 *4.65 grams/GWh + 0.9*0.2 grams/GWh)
  23. ^ Vasilis Fthenakis. CdTe PV: Facts and Handy Comparisons. January 2003. Accessed March 2017. https://www.bnl.gov/pv/files/pdf/art_165.pdf
  24. ^ Kaczmar, S., Evaluating the Read-Across Approach on CdTe Toxicity for CdTe Photovoltaics , SETAC North America 32nd Annual Meeting, Boston, MA, November 2011. Available at: ftp://ftp.co.imperial.ca.us/icpds/eir/campo-verde-solar/final/evaluatin…, Accessed May 2017
  25. ^ V. M. Fthenakis et al, Emissions and Encapsulation of Cadmium in CdTe PV Modules During Fires Renewable Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Application: Res. Appl. 2005; 13:1–11, Accessed March 2017, www.bnl.gov/pv/files/pdf/abs_179.pdf
  26. ^ Fthenakis V.M., Life Cycle Impact Analysis of Cadmium in CdTe Photovoltaic Production , Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 8, 303-334, 2004. www.clca.columbia.edu/papers/Life_Cycle_Impact_Analysis_Cadmium_CdTe_Ph…, Accessed May 2017
  27. ^ International Renewable Energy Agency. Stephanie Weckend, Andreas Wade, Garvin Heath. End of Life Management: Solar Photovoltaic Panels . June 2016. Accessed November 2016.
  28. ^ International Journal of Advanced Applied Physics Research. Renate Zapf-Gottwick1, et al. Leaching Hazardous Substances out of Photovoltaic Modules . January 2015. Accessed January 2016. www.cosmosscholars.com/phms/index.php/ijaapr/article/download/485/298
  29. ^ Cunningham D., Discussion about TCLP protocols, Photovoltaics and the Environment Workshop, July 23-24, 1998, Brookhaven National Laboratory, BNL-52557
  30. ^ Parikhit Sinha, et al. Evaluation of Potential Health and Environmental Impacts from End-Of-Life Disposal of Photovoltaics, Photovoltaics, 2014. Accessed May 2016
  31. ^ Practical Handbook of Photovoltaics: Fundamentals and Applications. T. Markvart and L. Castaner. Chapter VII-2: Overview of Potential Hazards . December 2003. Accessed August 2016. https://www.bnl.gov/pv/files/pdf/art_170.pdf
  32. ^ Norwegian Geotechnical Institute. Environmental Risks Regarding the Use and End-of-Life Disposal of CdTe PV Modules . April 2010. Accessed August 2016. https://www.dtsc.ca.gov/LawsRegsPolicies/upload/Norwegian-Geotechnical-…
  33. ^ First Solar. Dr. Yasunari Matsuno. December 2013. August 2016. Environmental Risk Assessment of CdTe PV Systems to be considered under Catastrophic Events in Japan . http://www.firstsolar.com/-/media/Documents/Sustainability/Peer-Reviews…
  34. ^ First Solar. Parikhit Sinha, Andreas Wade. Assessment of Leaching Tests for Evaluating Potential Environmental Impacts of PV Module Field Breakage . 2015 IEEE
  35. ^ See p. 22 of First Solar, Sustainability Report. Available at: www.firstsolar.com/-/media/First-Solar/Sustainability-Documents/03801_F…, Accessed May 2017
  36. ^ 40 CFR § 261.24. Toxicity Characteristic . May 2017. Accessed May 2017. https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?node=se40.26.261_124&rgn=div8
  37. ^ Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy. Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide. Accessed March 2017. https://www.energy.gov/eere/sunshot/copper-indium-gallium-diselenide
  38. ^ Mathias Maehlum. Best Thin Film Solar Panels – Amorphous, Cadmium Telluride or CIGS? April 2015. Accessed March 2017. http://energyinformative.org/best-thin-film-solar-panels-amorphous-cadm…
  39. ^ RoHS tested certificate for Solar Frontier PV modules. TUVRheinland, signed 11.11.2013
  40. ^ International Renewable Energy Agency. Stephanie Weckend, Andreas Wade, Garvin Heath. End of Life Management: Solar Photovoltaic Panels . June 2016. Accessed November 2016. http://www.irena.org/DocumentDownloads/Publications/IRENA_IEAPVPS_End-o…
  41. ^ 40 C.F.R. §261.10. Identifying the Characteristics of Hazardous Waste and for Listing Hazardous Waste . November 2016. Accessed November 2016 http://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=ce0006d66da40146b490084ca2816143&mc=true&node=pt40.26.261&rgn=div5#sp40.28.261.b
  42. ^ 40 C.F.R. §261.24 Toxicity Characteristic. November 2016. Accessed November 2016. http://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=ce0006d66da40146b490084ca28161…
  43. ^ International Renewable Energy Agency. Stephanie Weckend, Andreas Wade, Garvin Heath. End of Life Management: Solar Photovoltaic Panels . June 2016. Accessed November 2016. http://www.irena.org/DocumentDownloads/Publications/IRENA_IEAPVPS_End-o…
  44. ^ TLCP test results from third-party laboratories for REC, Jinko, and Canadian Solar silicon-based panels. Provided by PV panel manufacturers directly or indirectly to authors
  45. ^ Sinovoltaics, Introduction to Solar Panel Recycling , March 2014. Accessed October 2016. http://sinovoltaics.com/solar-basics/introduction-to-solar-panel-recycling/
  46. ^ Brookhaven National Laboratory. Vasilis Fthenakis, Regulations on Photovoltaic Module Disposal and Recycling. January 29, 2001.
  47. ^ Parikhit Sinha, et al. Evaluation of Potential Health and Environmental Impacts from End-Of-Life Disposal of Photovoltaics, Photovoltaics, 2014.
  48. ^ First Solar. Parikhit Sinha , Andreas Wade. Assessment of Leaching Tests for Evaluating Potential Environmental Impacts of PV Module Field Breakage. October 2015. Accessed August 2016. http://www.firstsolar.com/-/media/Documents/Sustainability/PVSC42-Manus…
  49. ^ First Solar. Dr. Yasunari Matsuno. December 2013. Environmental Risk Assessment of CdTe PV Systems to be considered under Catastrophic Events in Japan . http://www.firstsolar.com/-/media/Documents/Sustainability/Peer-Reviews…
  50. ^ Phone interview, February 3, 2016, TT&E Iron & Metal, Garner, NC www.ncscrapmetal.com/
  51. ^ Wen-His Huang, et al. Strategy and Technology To Recycle Water-silicon Solar Modules . Solar Energy, Volume 144, March 2017, Pages 22-31
  52. ^ International Renewable Energy Agency. Stephanie Weckend, Andreas Wade, Garvin Heath. End of Life Management: Solar Photovoltaic Panels . June 2016. Accessed November 2016. http://www.irena.org/DocumentDownloads/Publications/IRENA_IEAPVPS_End-o…
  53. ^ Official Journal of the European Union. Directive 2012/19/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 4 July 2012 on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment .  July 2012. Accessed November 2016. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=celex%3A32012L0019
  54. ^ PV CYCLE. Annual Report 2015. Accessed November 2016. https://pvcyclepublications.cld.bz/Annual-Report-PV-CYCLE-2015/6-7
  55. ^ Official Journal of the European Union. Directive 2012/19/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 4 July 2012 on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment .  July 2012. Accessed November 2016. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=celex%3A32012L0019
  56. ^ SEIA National PV Recycling Program: www.seia.org/seia-national-pv-recycling-program
  57. ^ RBI Solar, Decommissioning Plan submitted to Catawba County associated with permitting of a 5MW solar project in June 2016. Accessed April 2017. www.catawbacountync.gov/Planning/Projects/Rezonings/RZ2015-05_Decommiss…
  58. ^ Birdseye Renewables, Decommissioning Plan submitted to Catawba County associated with permitting of a 5MW solar project in May 2015. Accessed April 2017. www.catawbacountync.gov/Planning/Projects/Rezonings/RZ2015-04_Decommiss…
  59. ^ Cypress Creek Renewables, Decommissioning Plan submitted to Catawba County associated with permitting of a 5MW solar project in September 2016. Accessed April 2017. www.catawbacountync.gov/Planning/Projects/Rezonings/RZ2016-06decommissi…
  60. ^ Sun Raised Farms: http://sunraisedfarms.com/index.html
  61. ^ National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences and National Institutes of Health, EMF: Electric and Magnetic Fields Associated with Electric Power: Questions and Answers, June 2002
  62. ^ World Health Organization. Electromagnetic Fields and Public Health: Exposure to Extremely Low Frequency Fields . June 2007. Accessed August 2016. http://www.who.int/peh-emf/publications/facts/fs322/en/
  63. ^ Committee on the Possible Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Biologic Systems, National Research Council, Possible Health Effects of Exposure to Residential Electric and Magnetic Fields, ISBN: 0-309-55671-6, 384 pages, 6 x 9, (1997) This PDF is available from the National Academies Press at: http://www.nap.edu/catalog/5155.html
  64. ^ World Health Organization. Electromagnetic Fields and Public Health: Exposure to Extremely Low Frequency Fields . June 2007. Accessed August 2016. http://www.who.int/peh-emf/publications/facts/fs322/en/
  65. ^ World Health Organization. Electromagnetic Fields and Public Health: Static Electric and Magnetic Fields . March 2006. Accessed August 2016. http://www.who.int/peh-emf/publications/facts/fs299/en/
  66. ^ Asher Sheppard, Health Issues Related to the Static and Power-Frequency Electric and Magnetic Fields (EMFs) of the Soitec Solar Energy Farms, April 30, 2014. Accessed March 2017: www.sandiegocounty.gov/content/dam/sdc/pds/ceqa/Soitec-Documents/Final-…
  67. ^ Massachusetts Clean Energy Center. Study of Acoustic and EMF Levels from Solar Photovoltaic Projects . December 2012. Accessed August 2016.
  68. ^ Duke Energy Corporation. Frequently Asked Questions: Electric and Magnetic Fields . Accessed August 2016. https://www.duke-energy.com/about-energy/frequently_asked_questions.asp
  69. ^ National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Electric and Magnetic Fields Associate with the use of Electric Power: Questions and Answers , 2002. Accessed November 2016 www.niehs.nih.gov/health/materials/electric_and_magnetic_fields
  70. ^ Duke Energy Corporation. Frequently Asked Questions: Electric and Magnetic Fields . Accessed August 2016. https://www.duke-energy.com/about-energy/frequently_asked_questions.asp
  71. ^ R.A. Tell et al, Electromagnetic Fields Associated with Commercial Solar Photovoltaic Electric Power Generating Facilities , Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Volume 12, 2015,- Issue 11. Abstract Accessed March 2016: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15459624.2015.1047021
  72. ^ Massachusetts Department of Energy Resources, Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, and Massachusetts Clean Energy Center. Questions & Answers: Ground-Mounted Solar Photovoltaic Systems . June 2015. Accessed August 20 16. http://www.mass.gov/eea/docs/doer/renewables/solar/solar-pv-guide.pdf
  73. ^ Ibid.
  74. ^ Ibid.
  75. ^ EMFs and medical devices , Accessed March 2017. www.emfs.info/effects/medical-devices/
  76. ^ ibid.
  77. ^ Damon McCluer. Electrical Construction & Maintenance: NFPA 70E’s Approach to Considering DC Hazards . September 2013. Accessed October 2016. http://ecmweb.com/safety/nfpa-70e-s-approach-considering-dc-hazards,
  78. ^ Hong-Yun Yang, et. al. Experimental Studies on the Flammability and Fire Hazards of Photovoltaic Modules, Materials. July 2015. Accessed August 2016. http://www.mdpi.com/1996-1944/8/7/4210/pdf
  79. ^ Matt Fountain. The Tribune. Fire breaks out at Topaz Solar Farm . July 2015. Accessed August 2016. www.sanluisobispo.com/news/local/article39055539.html
  80. ^ Cooperative Research Network. Matthew Paiss. Tech Surveillance: PV Safety & Code Developments . October 2014. Accessed August 2016. http://www.nreca.coop/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/ts_pv_fire_safety_oct_…
NC State Credit