1.2.1 Solar Panels: Construction and Durability

Solar PV panels typically consist of glass, polymer, aluminum, copper, and semiconductor materials that can be recovered and recycled at the end of their useful life. 2 Today there are two PV technologies used in PV panels at utility-scale solar facilities, silicon, and thin film. As of 2016, all thin film used in North Carolina solar facilities are cadmium telluride (CdTe) panels from the US manufacturer First Solar, but there are other thin film PV panels available on the market, such as Solar Frontier’s CIGS panels. Crystalline silicon technology consists of silicon wafers which are made into cells and assembled into panels, thin film technologies consist of thin layers of semiconductor material deposited onto glass, polymer or metal substrates. While there are differences in the components and manufacturing processes of these two types of solar technologies, many aspects of their PV panel construction are very similar. Specifics about each type of PV chemistry as it relates to toxicity are covered in subsections a, b, and c in section 1.2.2; on crystalline silicon, cadmium telluride, and CIS/CIGS respectively. The rest of this section applies equally to both silicon and thin film panels.

Components of silicon solar panels
Figure 2: Components of crystalline silicon panels. The vast majority of silicon panels consist of a glass sheet on the topside with an aluminum frame providing structural support. Image Source:


Anatomy of a Thin PV Cell
Figure 3: Layers of a common frameless thin-film panel (CdTe). Many thin film panels are frameless, including the most common thin-film panels, First Solar’s CdTe. Frameless panels have protective glass on both the front and back of the panel. Layer thicknesses not to scale. Image Source:


To provide decades of corrosion-free operation, PV cells in PV panels are encapsulated from air and moisture between two layers of plastic. The encapsulation layers are protected on the top with a layer of tempered glass and on the backside with a polymer sheet. Frameless modules include a protective layer of glass on the rear of the panel, which may also be tempered. The plastic ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) commonly provides the cell encapsulation. For decades, this same material has been used between layers of tempered glass to give car windshields and hurricane windows their great strength. In the same way that a car windshield cracks but stays intact, the EVA layers in PV panels keep broken panels intact (see Figure 4). Thus, a damaged module does not generally create small pieces of debris; instead, it largely remains together as one piece.

Figure 4: The mangled PV panels in this picture illustrate the nature of broken solar panels; the glass cracks but the panel is still in one piece. Image Source:

PV panels constructed with the same basic components as modern panels have been installed across the globe for well over thirty years. 3 The long-term durability and performance demonstrated over these decades, as well as the results of accelerated lifetime testing, helped lead to an industry-standard 25-year power production warranty for PV panels. These power warranties warrant a PV panel to produce at least 80% of their original nameplate production after 25 years of use. A recent SolarCity and DNV GL study reported that today’s quality PV panels should be expected to reliably and efficiently produce power for thirty-five years. 4


Local building codes require all structures, including ground mounted solar arrays, to be engineered to withstand anticipated wind speeds, as defined by the local wind speed requirements. Many racking products are available in versions engineered for wind speeds of up to 150 miles per hour, which is significantly higher than the wind speed requirement anywhere in North Carolina. The strength of PV mounting structures were demonstrated during Hurricane Sandy in 2012 and again during Hurricane Matthew in 2016. During Hurricane Sandy, the many large-scale solar facilities in New Jersey and New York at that time suffered only minor damage. 5 In the fall of 2016, the US and Caribbean experienced destructive winds and torrential rains from Hurricane Matthew, yet one leading solar tracker manufacturer reported that their numerous systems in the impacted area received zero damage from wind or flooding. 6


In the event of a catastrophic event capable of damaging solar equipment, such as a tornado, the system will almost certainly have property insurance that will cover the cost to cleanup and repair the project. It is in the best interest of the system owner to protect their investment against such risks. It is also in their interest to get the project repaired and producing full power as soon as possible. Therefore, the investment in adequate insurance is a wise business practice for the system owner. For the same reasons, adequate insurance coverage is also generally a requirement of the bank or firm providing financing for the project.

1.1 Project Installation/Construction

The system installation, or construction, process does not require toxic chemicals or processes. The site is mechanically cleared of large vegetation, fences are constructed, and the land is surveyed to layout exact installation locations. Trenches for underground wiring are dug and support posts are driven into the ground. The solar panels are bolted to steel and aluminum support structures and wired together. Inverter pads are installed, and an inverter and transformer are installed on each pad. Once everything is connected, the system is tested, and only then turned on.

Utility Scale Solar in Catawba County

Figure 1: Utility-scale solar facility (5 MWAC) located in Catawba County. Source: Strata Solar


1.2 System Components

1.3 Solar Facility Construction

Solar panels are supported by steel or aluminum racks. The racks are attached to galvanized steel posts driven 6-8 feet into the ground without concrete, although very occasionally, site conditions require the use of cement grout in the pile hole. The only concrete is generally at the inverter/transformer pads which are typically about 10’ by 20’ each. There is usually no more than one such pad per MW of AC capacity.  At some sites these pads are precast concrete or steel skids that sit above grade on helical steel piers. Much of the wiring at the site is above-ground attached to the racking under the rows of panels. The rest of the wiring is 2 to 3 feet underground either as direct-bury cables or in 2”-6” PVC conduit. Most sites involve minimal grading of the land.  

Every site provides access for vehicles, which requires roads, or “access aisles,”  to be constructed. These roads are sometimes improved with gravel, but they do not require application of concrete or asphalt. Many sites only use gravel close to the entry to the public Right of Way, as required by NCDOT regulation, with the rest of the access aisles as simply compacted native soil. Some developers use reusable wooden logging mats to provide temporary stabilization during construction to avoid the need for the addition of gravel. A best practice when building a gravel access aisle is to strip the organic topsoil, place a geotextile fabric under the aggregate and redistribute the topsoil on site to assist in soil stabilization.  This will provide stability for the aggregate, allow for more efficient removal of the gravel at the end of the project’s life cycle by providing separation between aggregate and subgrade, while preserving the valuable topsoil on site for future agricultural use.[9] Well-drafted leases will specify allowable construction techniques and locations of roads and other infrastructure. The NC Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) requires soil erosion and sedimentation control plans and permits and inspects implemented measures on the site until vegetative groundcover is established.