Soil

Zinc

Zinc from galvanized components, including support posts for solar panels, can move into the soil.[39] Zinc from building material stockpiles has been previously noted as a localized problem for peanut production in some North Carolina fields.[40] While it is difficult to predict in advance the degree to which this will occur, it is relatively simple to collect soil samples and monitor this situation in existing installations. Analysis of zinc is included in routine soil testing procedures used by the NC Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services Agronomic Services Division Laboratory. Awareness of zinc concentrations in the soil, and any spatial patterns noted with depth and distance from structures, should allow producers to determine if the field is adequate for desired crops as is. If zinc limitations exist, awareness of concentrations and spatial distribution patterns may indicate the potential for deep tillage, liming, or crop selection alternatives required for successful agricultural use.  Of the agronomic crops grown in NC, peanuts are the most sensitive crop to zinc toxicity. Based on information from the N.C. Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, there is risk of toxicity to peanuts when the zinc availability index (Zn-AI) is 250 or higher, particularly in low-pH situations. Risk increases with increasing soil test levels, especially if pH management through a liming program is not followed. For most other crops, zinc toxicity does not become problematic until the Zn-AI index reaches 2,000-3,000.[41]

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Aluminum

Aluminum is very common in soils around the world, including those common in North Carolina. In fact, the earth's crust is about 7% aluminum, and most soils are over 1% aluminum![36] The aluminum is generally unavailable to plants as long as the soil pH is above about 5.5. In acidic soils many forms of aluminum become more bio-available to plants; this can be toxic to many plant species.[37] This effect is one of the major reason many plants do not tolerate very acidic soils. The use of aluminum building materials releases negligible amounts of aluminum during their useful life because the material is so corrosion resistant.[38] The aluminum frames of PV modules are anodized which adds a very thin hard coating of aluminum oxide to the exterior of the aluminum that greatly improves aluminum's already-high resistance to corrosion. Therefore, any minute amount of aluminum that could be released by corrosion from aluminum construction materials during the life of a solar project will not materially add to the thousands or millions of pounds of aluminum naturally present in the soil of a typical N.C. solar facility. The common practice of liming soils to maintain appropriate soil pH for crop systems alleviates most, if not all, concerns about aluminum impacting crop growth in the future.

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Weed and Vegetation Control

Maintenance of vegetation on site can be accomplished using several options, including but not limited to the following: mowing, weed eaters, herbicides, and sheep. Reductions in fertilizer use on the site will slow growth of vegetation and weeds. Mowing allows the landowner to have the option of laying cut grass or vegetation on grounds of site to decompose and improve long-term soil fertility. In some cases, landowners have used grazing animals, normally sheep, to frequent the solar site grounds and control the vegetation and weeds, which also returns organic matter to the soil on site

Like most lawns and parks, many utility-scale solar facilities in N.C. use a combination of mowing and herbicides to maintain the vegetation. When using herbicides, applicators are advised to be mindful of label instructions and local conditions. Herbicide persistence is affected by the organic matter content and moisture level of the soil. The importance of complying with legal responsibilities in using the treatments cannot be stressed enough, especially for land located near surface water, land where the surface is near the water table, or where application might carry over to other neighboring lands..

Herbicide use at solar facilities is typically similar to that in agriculture, and the types of herbicides used are similar between the two uses. As such, the impact of herbicides used at solar facilities on neighboring land and the environment is likely to be no more than that of conventional agriculture. Herbicide use differs widely among different crops and farming techniques, so the change in herbicide appliance between agricultural and solar use will vary in individual cases, but in the aggregate, there is no reason to believe that solar facilities will result in more herbicide impacts on neighboring lands than do current agricultural uses.[31] Herbicide use can be discontinued 1-2 years before decommissioning of a site, minimizing any residual impact on crop production at former solar sites.[32]

A number of sites use sheep at low densities to maintain vegetation during the growing season, although the sheep do not fully replace the need for mowing and/or herbicide use. The sheep are leased from sheep farmers, and the demand for sheep at solar facilities has been beneficial for North Carolina’s sheep industry.[33] The grazing of sheep at solar facilities incorporates local farmers into the management of the sites, engaging the local community with solar development. The growth of solar farms represents a huge opportunity for the North Carolina sheep industry, with thousands of acres that are fenced well for sheep, and allow North Carolina farmers to diversify into new agricultural products for which there is increasing demand.[34]

Erosion

According to its current Stormwater Design Manual, the N.C. Department of Environmental Quality allows solar panels associated with ground-mounted solar farms to be considered pervious if configured such that they promote sheet flow of stormwater from the panels and allow natural infiltration of stormwater into the ground beneath the panels.[29] For solar development, an erosion control and sedimentation permit is required, which involves on-site inspections and approval by the North Carolina Department of Environmental Quality. The permit requires establishment of permanent vegetative ground cover sufficient to restrain erosion; according to DEQ staff, the site must be “completely stabilized,” although this does not require a specific percentage of ground cover.[30] In-depth information on erosion control and sedimentation laws, rules, principles, and practices is available at the NC DEQ’s website. Once permanent vegetation is established it will be necessary to maintain soil pH and fertility as mentioned above in order to ensure sufficient, healthy, and continuous ground cover for erosion control.

Compaction

Soil compaction can negatively impact soil productivity and will occur to some degree on every solar site. Soil compaction can also limit water infiltration into the soil environment, and lead to greater surface water runoff during rain events.[27] In addition to the roads built in and around  solar project sites, the construction of the facility itself as well as regular use of lawn mowers compacts the soil, decreasing the ability of plant roots to grow. However, use of land as a solar site will avoid agriculture-related activities that can induce compaction, such as tillage. There are no data available on the degree of compaction common at solar facilities, but it is possible that some sites could experience heavy compaction in frequently used areas. In cases of heavy compaction, hard pans in the soil will form that can take decades to naturally free up; however, tractor implements such as chisels and vibrators designed to break up hard pan can often remove enough compaction to restore productivity. To prevent damage to soil due to compaction, landowners can negotiate for practices that will result in the least amount of compaction and for roads to be constructed on less productive land. Additionally, maintaining healthy groundcover, especially varieties with deep root systems, can serve to keep the soil arable for potential future agricultural use. The appropriate use of alternative vegetative maintenance strategies, such as grazing with sheep, can reduce the use of mowing equipment onsite and therefore the compaction that may result from using this equipment.[28] Furthermore, livestock grazing works to cycle nutrients in the pasture ecosystem onsite and improve the soil.

Soil Quality

Modern agriculture relies on regular additions of lime and fertilizer to maintain soil pH and fertility. Solar facilities maintain vegetative ground covers that can help build soil quality over time, which may require lime and fertilizer to be applied. When the vegetation is cut, the organic matter is left in place to decompose which adds valuable organic matter to the soil. A facility operation and maintenance schedule should include a plan for maintenance of sufficient plant groundcover to protect soil from erosion.  Maintaining healthy plant cover will require monitoring of soil fertility and may call for the addition of fertilizer or lime to ensure sufficient nutrients are available for plant growth and that soil pH is adequate. Vegetation mixes may help balance soil nutrient needs, but will need to be managed.  Species composition will change over time.[25] NREL and others are researching and using vegetation mixes that include many native grasses with deep root systems; many include some nitrogen fixing plants as well. According to a study published in July 2016 that measured soil and air microclimate, vegetation and greenhouse gas emissions for twelve months under photovoltaic (PV) arrays, in gaps between PV arrays and in control areas at a UK solar sited on species-rich grassland, UK scientists found no change in soil properties among the three locations.[26]After a solar project is removed, a routine soil test (available from the North Carolina Department of Agriculture) should be obtained to determine fertility requirements, including lime, for optimum crop production.

Construction Grading and Soil Preservation

The amount of grading necessary to prepare a parcel for a utility-scale solar facility is dependent on the slope of land and the type of solar mounting used. In much of N.C., fixed-tilt mounting of PV requires little to no grading for installation of the PV system. Single-axis tracking systems that slowly rotate each row of panels to track the sun’s path across the sky generally require flatter land (typically less than 8% grading) and thus more often require grading  of the site, particularly for projects in the Piedmont region or farther west.[21] Typical construction practices require that topsoil be stripped and stockpiled prior to cut/fill operations.  The stockpiled topsoil will be redistributed across graded areas, to assist in growing adequate ground cover as quickly as possible to provide ground stabilization.  The stripping, stockpiling and redistribution of topsoil in this manner will have some impact on the amount of organics and nutrients that remain in the soil immediately after placement.  However, proper ground stabilization practices include soil testing to determine the appropriate levels of lime, fertilizer and seed to be applied to establish ground cover.  Proper installation practices require these additives to be tilled into the soil, which effectively reduces the compaction of the upper soil stratum, typically to a depth of 8”-12”.  Typical solar projects will not remove any topsoil from the project site, partly due to financial implications, but more importantly due to its value in establishing ground cover as quickly as possible[22] (removing soil also requires a mining permit).[23] Most landowners steer solar projects to their least productive soils on a given piece of property to the extent practical.[24]